There’s a good chance your day started with a cappuccino or a cold brew, and you aren’t alone.
In fact, coffee is one of the most consumed drinks on the planet, and it’s also one of the most traded commodities.
According to the National Coffee Association globally coffee consumption is estimated at over 2.25 billion cups per day.
But before it gets to your morning cup, coffee beans travel through a complex global supply chain.
Today’s illustration from Visual Capitalist breaks down this journey into 10 distinct steps.
There are two types of tropical plants that produce coffee, both preferring high altitudes and with production primarily based in South America, Asia, and Africa.
Coffea arabica is the more plentiful bean, with a more complex flavour and less caffeine.
It’s used in most specialty and “high quality” drinks as Arabica coffee.
Coffea canephora, meanwhile, has stronger and more bitter flavours.
It’s also easier to grow and is most frequently used in espressos and instant blends as Robusta coffee.
However, both types of beans undergo the same journey:
Plants take anywhere from 4-7 years to produce their first harvest and grow fruit for around 25 years.
The fruit of the coffee plant is the coffee berry, containing two beans within. Ripened berries are harvested either by hand or machine.
Coffee berries are then processed either in a traditional “dry” method using the sun or a “wet” method using water and machinery. This removes the outer fruit encasing the sought-after green beans.
The green coffee beans are hulled, cleaned, sorted, and (optionally) graded.
Once the coffee berry is stripped down to green beans, it’s shipped from producing countries through a global supply network.
Green coffee beans are exported and shipped around the world.
In 2018 alone, 7.2 million tonnes of green coffee beans were exported, valued at $19.2 billion.
Arriving primarily in the U.S. and Europe, the beans are now prepared for consumption:
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Green beans are industrially roasted, becoming darker, oilier, and tasty. Different temperatures and heat duration impact the final colour and flavour, with some preferring light roasts to dark roasts.
Any imperfect or somehow ruined beans are discarded, and the remaining roasted beans are packaged together by type.
Roasted beans are shipped both domestically and internationally. Bulk shipments go to retailers, and coffee shops, and in some cases, direct to consumers.
Roasted coffee beans are almost ready for consumption, and by this stage, the remaining steps can happen anywhere.
For example, many factories don’t ship roasted beans until they grind them themselves.
Meanwhile, cafes will grind their own beans on-site before preparing drinks.
The rapid growth of coffee chains made Starbucks the second-highest-earning U.S. fast food venue.
Regardless of where it happens, the final steps bring coffee straight to your cup:
Roasted beans are ground up in order to better extract their flavours, either by machine or by hand. The preferred fineness depends on the darkness of the roast and the brewing method.
Water is added to the coffee grounds in a variety of methods. Some involve water being passed or pressured through the grounds (espresso, drip) while others mix the water and grounds (French press, Turkish coffee).
Liquid coffee is ready to be enjoyed! One average cup takes 70 roasted beans to make.
The world’s choice of caffeine pick-me-up is made possible by this structured and complex supply chain.
Coffee isn’t just a drink, after all, it’s a business.