We know that Australia's immigration virtually came to a halt over Covid, but that's changing now.
Our recovery in net migration recovery continued in October.
In fact, arrivals and departures data for October showed ongoing normalisation in long-term net arrivals with a net of 21,000 people in the month.
Permanent and long-term arrivals have been around their monthly pre-pandemic levels since March and are on track to meeting budget forecasts of population growth returning to 1.4% a year by mid-2023.
Mr Taylor Nugent, Markets Economist at NAB said:
"Net arrivals had been weighed by higher numbers of permanent and long-term departures but these have started to ease.
As for total arrivals which include short-term arrivals for tourism, amongst other things, preliminary data for November is consistent with continued gradual recovery.
Total movements that also include short-term arrivals though were 32% below pre-pandemic November 2019 levels, reflecting a slower recovery in tourism."
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The recovery in total arrivals has varied sharply by country.
Arrivals from New Zealand, the UK, Singapore and the US are between 20 and 40% below their pre-pandemic levels.
Key sources of student arrivals in India and Nepal have fully recovered their pre-pandemic arrivals levels in the month.
In contrast, arrivals from much of Asia are still less than a third of their pre-pandemic levels.
China was the second largest source of arrivals in October 2019, but arrivals this month were just 7% of that level.
A fuller recovery of international student and tourism inflows is likely in time as China continues to pivot away from zero-COVID.