Land appreciates and buildings depreciate – good or bad property investment advice?-Pete Wargent

Today I’d like to discuss the cost of bad property investment advice

No surprises that with the property market on the upturn, the usual parties are back talking up investing in property in remote locations. Recently the SMH reported that Cairns might be about to “awaken from its coma”.

More than a dozen years ago now some ‘positive cash flow commentators’ were tipping buying off-the-plan in Cairns as a smart investment, ostensibly for the strong depreciation benefits and high yields (I think they were the  only reasons given; I certainly can’t think of any others).

Cost of bad property investment advice


There may have been marginal capital growth in apartments over the years, but it’s not the growth periods in these low-demand or speculative regions that worries me. It’s when the downturns hit, and according to SMH dwelling prices fell by 30% or more in Cairns through the global  financial crisis (GFC) wiping out the previous gains.

According to SQM Research asking prices have continued to fall over the past 4 years. Parts of the Gold Coast suffered a similar fate through the GFC.

The opportunity cost of taking heed of this bad advice had you taken it would have been been nothing short of immense. In that time you could simply have invested in a few quality, well-located properties in Melbourne or Perth (or pretty much any capital city) and secured your financial future.

Dwelling prices

Undeterred, positive cash-flow investors then went on to promote serviced apartments in hotel complexes for strong rents (each to their own, but I’d file that under ‘B’ for ‘Bad Advice’ as well) or investing in all manner of tourism properties (refer ‘GFC’ above) and other unusual locations (basically “any property” which produced a positive cashflow) located hours away from job centres and where most people prefer to live and to invest.

While many regional properties have been under peforming investments for years now, today the hot sectors of the property market include certain parts of Perth, Sydney’s inner west and Sydney’s north shore.

As noted, Melbourne has already experienced a phenomenal price boom from 2007. Brisbane has been in the doldrums for some time; but its time will surely come again.

As for Darwin, well prices keep on rocketing, and they may continue to do so. It’s a crazy market up here in the Top End, with ultra-high prices these days for such a small city  – generally, I don’t like crazy markets, but good luck to you if it’s your thing.

A key factor in determining the return on any investment is the entry price, so in my opinion better value now lies elsewhere.

Land appreciates

It’s often said that land appreciates while buildings depreciate and require maintenance, and this is by and large true, so it is vital to invest where there is a massive and growing demand for a limited supply of land.

It’s pretty simple really, because every demographic statistic tells us that the capital cities are where these trends are playing out.

In this recent blog post I noted how in Port Augusta, by way of an example, vacant land prices clocked in at only a few thousand dollars as recently as 2004.

To all intents and purposes, from an economic perspective, the land had a value of approximately $nil – there were plenty of lots potentially available for release and there hasn’t been much demand from the small population.

So how, then, have median house prices increased all the way up to $175,000? Because it costs more than that to construct and then sell a house for a worthwhile profit these days.

As new houses come on to the market in regional towns, the median price tends to be increased. Unfortunately new builds often don’t produce great capital growth as the initial buyer tends to suck up much of the developer’s costs and profit margins.

And this dynamic doesn’t do much for the price of existing dwellings either, which become less popular as compared to the shiny new builds.

But hasn’t regional property done OK?

Property investment was ‘easy’ in the 1970s and 1980s for those who were actually born and had access to capital, for inflation was raging and the value of debt was quickly inflated away.

Plenty of regional properties did go up in price a fair amount between 1990 and 2007 too, but then, so did nearly all property prices in Australia, because interest rates fell dramatically and we went on an almighty borrowing binge.

However, long-term regional growth rates have still been relatively poor as you can see on the websites of data providers, which is reflected in low median prices today, and regional price growth has stalled for some years now as the first chart above clearly shows.

Household debt

The borrowing boom cannot and almost certainly will not be repeated, and certainly not in remote, owner-occupier regions where few elect to invest. House prices cannot continue to be inflated by ever-greater leverage and household debt.

Material price growth in the future must surely only be sourced from real wages growth and investor activity, which largely occurs in some key sectors of our capital cities.

Someone will always be making money from real estate, but if you’re an investor you’ll have to be smarter than before, and do two things very well if you are to succeed:

(i) invest counter-cyclically; and

(ii) follow demographic trends

The average household persons per dwelling has plummeted over the past century, so medium-density dwellings such as 2 bedroom properties may be a good bet, but only in quality locations in cities where the population is booming and where large plots of land cannot be released.

In my opinion, for most regional towns the best case scenario over the next decade is that property prices increase in line with inflation as construction costs increase.

However, inflation is likely to remain relatively low so capital returns will also be stunted. The worst case is that prices slide backwards for a decade.

Graph: Construction Costs

The RBA recently released this revealing chart, which shows that even in our major capital cities, in the fringe suburbs where demand is low, land is relatively cheap.

There isn’t much demand for these plots from homebuyers or investors so greenfield sites in Brisbane and Perth are cheap. Melbourne’s greenfield sites spiked in price during the previous first homebuyers’ boost and then receded.

Sydney’s urban sprawl is constrained by the Pacific Ocean and National Parks on all sides, so greenfield sites as a general rule cost significantly more, especially with the city’s notorious NIMBYism.

The chart demonstrates that where demand is low, dwelling price movements are predominantly related to construction costs, government levies, and service and finance. Price growth in low-demand locations consists less of the price of land, which remains a small component.[sam id=35 codes=’true’]

Meanwhile in the prime city suburbs even barely inhabitable hovels can fetch hundreds of thousands and sometimes even millions of dollars due to the great demand for the land in these plots.

While prices could increase steadily in low-demand areas as construction becomes more expensive, I believe this to be a risky approach to investment and one which introduces a significant potential for capital loss.



It’s all too easy to generalise, so let’s look at an example: the NSW south coast, which has been tipped by the cash-flow investors over the last few years. Unfortunately, no sooner did the region become nominated as a hotspot in 2010 than BlueScope Steel announced a major round of redundancies…with more following later. This is a salient risk of investing in regions dominated by few industries.

In the last decade, whereas a counter-cyclical capital city investor would have been looking to invest in a property which doubled (or more) in value in, say, Melbourne or Perth, prices in the Shoalhaven region appreciated by 12.5%.

Even in Sydney which would have been absolutely the last city you’d have picked on a counter-cyclical basis after its preceding boom to Q1, 2004, you might easily have achieved 40% capital growth in a quality inner or middle ring suburb.

As I discussed in this post, an investor in Melbourne could comfortably have achieved annual capital growth of a 9-10% compounding annual return since 2000 for well over 150% growth, which blows away equivalent returns from the vast majority of regional property investments.

As ever, don’t take my word for this: speak to experienced, independent Buyers Agents (not regional estate agents) about where long-term capital growth has been and will be found, and they will answer this riddle for you.

In theory, I suppose you could pick a regional hotspot, but as we’ve seen above even the positive cashflow commentators do it poorly, so your chances of long-term success in today’s highly-leveraged environment are accordingly reduced.


REA: Real Estate Reports

Different data providers give slightly different results. in their chart below shows median house price growth in regional ‘hotspot’ Nowra, for example, of 13% since 2004 (and unit price growth of, well…essentially nothing):

Median house price growth


The broad statistics don’t quite tell the full South Coast story, for median prices in the region (sadly, because it’s a beautiful part of the world) are being pumped up by extraordinarily ugly new housing estates.

You might argue that there are better times ahead for the NSW South Coast. Maybe, but I remain sceptical. There may be a moderately increasing demand, but there has been much land potentially available for release, and worse, it is being released.

Meanwhile, BlueScope have announced further redundancies in 2013 which will hurt the region’s prospects. Existing dwellings will therefore likely show relatively weak long-term growth.

While capital cities have been undergoing an investor-led recovery over the past 12 months and recording non-trivial capital growth, median prices in the Shoalhaven region have slipped backwards into a downtrend.

Further redundancies in 2013

REA Real Estate Reports

So why do the experts tip regional property. A few reasons:

(i) higher initial rental yields: more than 7% on the South Coast; or

(ii) kickbacks from developers in the regional towns they tip; or

(iii) they own investment property in the regions they recommend.

You might say that I’m also ramping regions where I invest around London and Sydney. Maybe, but the key difference is that the population of London is more than 8 million and that of Sydney is more than 4.6 million, so I don’t think my blog will have much impact. This is not necessarily the case in some small regional towns where it’s possible to undertake a ‘pump and dump’.

Property investment is a long-term game, so keep it simple and invest in suburbs where the demand is continuous and growing. You’ll do much better over the long haul.



Subscribe & don’t miss a single episode of Michael Yardney’s podcast

Hear Michael & a select panel of guest experts discuss property investment, success & money related topics. Subscribe now, whether you're on an Apple or Android handset.

Need help listening to Michael Yardney’s podcast from your phone or tablet?

We have created easy to follow instructions for you whether you're on iPhone / iPad or an Android device.


Prefer to subscribe via email?

Join Michael Yardney's inner circle of daily subscribers and get into the head of Australia's best property investment advisor and a wide team of leading property researchers and commentators.

Pete Wargent


is a Chartered Accountant, Chartered Secretary and has a Financial Planning Diploma. Using a long term approach to building businesses, investing in equities, & owning a portfolio he achieved financial independence at the age of 33. Visit his blog

'Land appreciates and buildings depreciate – good or bad property investment advice?-Pete Wargent' have 7 comments

  1. Avatar

    November 26, 2013 Steve harmison

    What a lovely stats. Awesome review Pete. I love to see some other articles from you. And keep up such nice posts like this.


  2. Pete Wargent

    November 11, 2013 Pete Wargent

    Phil, fair point, not sure what happened with the link to Vic & obviously you’re right diversity of employment is key. Personally I believe that constrained land supply and high demand in certain parts of inner/middle ring Sydney is in the midst of causing a huge property price boom. But, sure there are always other options for those who prefer.


  3. Avatar

    November 11, 2013 Phil

    Hi Pete, unfortunately the regional statistics used are flat out incorrect. You cite the lay offs in Bluescope Steel but then quote property stats for the Shoalhaven and Nowra. Bluescope is in Port Kembla, part of the Greater Wollongong or Illawarra area about 80k’s north of the Shoalhaven. There are 288000 people in the Illawarra – about 60000 in Shoalhaven. ABS stats show that there are 119000 people employed in Wollongong. Of these 9.9% are employed in manufacturing (i.e. the business Bluescope is in). So there are approximately 10000 people in manufacturing. Manufacturing is the 4th biggest employer in the region and the education and IT sectors are booming with the Uni & Innovation campus. There were 800 people laid off in the Port Kembla. True some of these may commute from the Shoalhaven but it would be a small majority. Now whilst unfortunate and not contributing to further growth, this event was not one which significantly impacted the property market in the area. You also have a link to an article about further layoffs by Bluescope. This article details layoffs in Victoria and in fact an excerpt suggests that production in Port Kembla will ramp up (Springhill is in Port Kembla).

    ”……..The upgrade was completed in late 2012 and it is looking to fully load and utilise the operational facilities at Port Kembla as opposed to the Western Port ones,” he said.

    Another analyst said BlueScope was not reducing asset capacity but taking shifts off at the Western Port facility, increasing the utilisation of shifts at the Springhill plant in NSW.”

    It’s one thing to selectively use data and information to attempt to support an argument. You lose credibility when you quote data that doesn’t even correlate to an area you are talking about.



  4. Avatar

    November 7, 2013 Brian

    The chart showing the cost of government fees and charges in a new build is way short. Up to 40% of a new build can be gst, stamp duty, local gov. fees and tax. Ask any developer.


  5. Avatar

    November 7, 2013 Mark

    Hi Pete,

    Great article with some good data. Interestingly areas in outer Sydney such as Kellyville Ridge, consist of only new houses, so its very easy to show a big increase in the medium. This is not reflecting reality as the increase is down to the build cost rather than the natural growth. Also the Nowra example, where the turnover is lower, if a new housing state is released, it would skew the medium upwards overnight and not reflective of the rest of the market.

    Whats your veiw on Terry Ryder and margaret lomas veiw that the regionals consistantly out perform the cities. They are not selling any properties, so you would think they have no benefit to gain by promoting this choice. Interested to hear your take on this


    • Pete Wargent

      November 7, 2013 Pete Wargent

      Hi Mark, yes I agree with your points. You only have to look at the RBA’s dwelling prices chart to see that in aggregate regional property prices have not moved for years – essentially since the significant increases in household debt peaked.

      Of course over various periods of time certain regions can show spurts of growth and to my knowledge nobody has ever contested that. But over the long term real property price growth is found in the desirable suburbs close to the main city centres, where people want to live and work. Every study concludes exactly the same thing – the economists, demographers and professors call refer to “cones of wealth”.

      Outer suburbs and regional centres frequently suffer from a lack of investment and infrastructure and have historically always been more susceptible to economic downturns due to the heavy reliance on linear employment income. Unfortunately over time this is likely to lead to something of a chasm between the haves and the have-nots – it’s not a good thing for any society but it is exactly what countries more developed than Australia have experienced, and we are beginning to see it in our expensive capital cities here now too.

      Incidentally, I remember back in Britain the housing markets going on a stupendous run for the decade leading up to 2007 and there were seminars all over the place advising people to use 100% mortgages to invest in northern England and elsewhere for high yields (on the premise that “property always goes up”). A lot of people who invested in remote towns and centres got completely wiped out when the crash finally came. Not in London though, where owners continue to enjoy prices rising unstintingly. In fact, I’ve spent a lot of time charting data and noted that London’s prime markets have risen in an unbroken fashion since 1995.

      Anyway, there’s certainly no need to take my word for any of this – read the economic papers and studies out there and all the evidence and information you need to know is there for all to see. Real price growth in outer suburbs and regional centres lags and this can create difficulty for younger homebuyers who aim to trade up the housing ladder.


Would you like to share your thoughts?

Your email address will not be published.


Michael's Daily Insights

Join Michael Yardney's inner circle of daily subscribers.

NOTE: this daily service is a different subscription to our weekly newsletter so...